Common Types of Periodontal Disease

There are many different varieties of periodontal disease, and many ways in which these variations manifest themselves. All require immediate treatment by a Periodontist to halt the progression and save the gum tissue and bone. Here are some of the most common types of periodontal disease along with the treatments typically performed to correct them.


Gingivitis causes inflammation, redness, and bleeding in the gingival tissue and is caused by the toxins in plaque. No bone loss has occurred at this stage. People at increased risk of developing gingivitis include pregnant women, women taking birth control pills, people with uncontrolled diabetes, steroid users and people who control seizures and blood pressure using medication.

Treatment: Gingivitis is easily reversible using a combination of home care and scaling and root planning to clean pockets of debris. A combination of antibiotics and medicated mouthwashes may be used to kill any remaining bacteria and promote healing.

Chronic Periodontal Disease

Chronic periodontal disease is the most common form of gum disease, and occurs more frequently in people over the age of 45. Symptoms of chronic periodontitis include:

    • Inflammation below the gum line
    • The progressive destruction of the gingiva and bone tissue
    • Teeth that appear to be growing in length, when actually the gums are gradually recessing

Treatment: Unlike gingivitis, chronic periodontitis is not reversible. However, the progression of the disease can be halted using non-surgical and surgical procedures including scaling and root planing, pocket reduction, and regenerative surgery.

Aggressive Periodontal Disease

Symptoms of aggressive periodontal disease include:

    • Rapid loss of gum attachment
    • Rapid loss of bone tissue

The disease itself is essentially the same as chronic periodontitis but the progression is usually much faster.

Treatment: The treatments for aggressive periodontal disease are the same as those for chronic periodontal disease.

About Jill Levine DDS MSc

Dr. Jill Levine DDS, MSc, FRCD(C) is a Certified Specialist in Periodontics practicing in Toronto, Ontario and offers dental implants to replace missing teeth, treatment for gum disease , and other gum procedures to help improve your smile.